The new branch of social psychology is gender,Considers the interaction of the sexes, their similarity, certain behavior in society, some other issues. Anatomical differences between people do not play any role here. This direction helps to better understand the psychology of men and women and the developing relationships between them.
What does gender mean?
The term came from the English. Gender - "gender", "gender". It was introduced in the 1950s by American sexologist John Mani. The notion of gender in psychology characterizes the social notions of women and men, the totality of qualities that a person manifests in a society. You can have male and female gender, but this is not the limit. For example, in Thailand, there are five gender types: heterosexuals, homosexuals, the third sex "katoy" and two types of homosexual women, characterized by femininity and masculinity. Gender and biological sex may not coincide.
Sex and gender
These two concepts characterize the separation of allPeople in two groups: male and female. In literal translation, terms are equal and sometimes used as synonyms. However, initially these concepts are opposed to each other. The differences between gender and gender are as follows: the first refers to the biological, and the second - to the social division of people. If the sex of a person is determined even before his birth by anatomical characteristics and does not depend on the environment and culture, then gender - the social sex - is associated with a whole system of ideas about behavior in society.
As a result of communication with other people andEducation a person is aware of his belonging to a particular group. Then we can talk about gender identity. Already to two or three years the child realizes, the girl he or the boy, begins to behave accordingly, to put on the "right" clothing by his standards and so on. There comes a realization that gender identity is permanent and can not change with time. Gender is always a choice, right or wrong.
Gender - the conscious meaning of sex and the subsequentThe mastering of those models of behavior that are expected of a person in society. It is this notion, and not gender, that determines the psychological characteristics, abilities, qualities, types of activity. All these aspects are regulated through legal and ethical norms, traditions, customs, and the system of upbringing.
In gender psychology, there are two directions: Psychology of sex and development of personality. This aspect is determined by the gender of the individual. In the development of a person's personality, his immediate surroundings (parents, relatives, educators, friends) take a direct part. The child tries on gender roles, learns to be more feminine or more manly, on the example of adults learns how to communicate with people of the opposite sex. In a person, to varying degrees, the features of both sexes can manifest themselves.
Gender in psychology is a fundamental dimension,Characterizing social relations. But along with the stable elements there are also mutable. For different generations, social strata, religious, ethnic and cultural groups, the role of men and women can differ. The formal and informal rules and norms existing in the community vary with time.
Psychology of gender relations in the family
Gender psychology pays great attention toThe study of the relationship between gender groups and different sex actors. She considers such an important aspect of life as the institution of marriage and family. Psychology of gender relations in the family highlights patterns of behavior:
- Affiliate, in which all responsibilities in the family do not have a strict separation, the spouses divide them equally, decisions are taken together.
- Dominant-dependent, in which one of the spouses plays a dominant role, makes decisions in everyday matters. Most often this role goes to his wife.
Differences in the behavior of heterosexual people can becomeThe cause of contradictions, both intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup. Gender stereotypes are an established pattern of behavior that distorts the view of the representatives of both genders. They drive people into a narrow framework of rules and impose a certain pattern of behavior, pave the way for discrimination and are closely related to it. This is a problem for certain problems, which include gender:
- inequality (different opportunities in society for different groups);
- gender-role stress (difficulties in maintaining the prescribed role);
People perceive gender values in different ways androle. When there is a collision of personal interests with the norms adopted, a serious disagreement arises. A person does not want or can not correspond to the settings dictated to him by society and gender behavior. Generally speaking, gender psychology views psychology as social. They are based on the struggle for their own interests. From the point of view of narrower interpersonal relations, conflicts are clashes between people. The most common of them occur in the family and the professional sphere.
One of the most acute problems of gender relations- Sex discrimination, known as sexism. In this case, one gender is preferred over another. There is a gender inequality. Representatives of both sexes may be subject to discrimination in labor, legal, family and other spheres, although they are most often referred to as infringement of women's rights. An attempt to achieve equality with a "strong gender" gave birth to such a notion as feminism.
This form of sexism is open, but most often it is veiled, since its apparent manifestation is fraught with consequences in both the political and public spheres. The latent form can be:
- various negative manifestations regarding people of the opposite sex.
Gender inequality and discrimination are becomingthe basis of the conflict, when a person acts violently against a representative of the opposite sex. Gender-based violence is an attempt to demonstrate one's sexual superiority. Four types of such violence are recognized: physical, psychological, sexual and economic. One - the gender usurper - is trying to seize power by force. Most often in the role of a despot is a man, because in modern society does not proclaim the dominance of women.
Gender psychology is a young field of scientificknowledge. Psychological research in this area focuses on the study of the personal characteristics of both sexes. The main achievements of this science are the study of tactics of behavior and strategy in overcoming gender stereotypes. So, for example, a woman can and should be successful in business, and a man - in the family field. Not anatomical features, and observance of prescribed gender roles and successful overcoming of emerging problems and conflicts allow to be called a man or a woman.