What is chauvinism as a phenomenon in society? This concept is used in many spheres of life, it is closely connected with politics, social life, interpersonal relations of men and women. Chauvinism carries in itself a destructive beginning, is based on sharply negative emotions.
Chauvinism - what is it?
The history of the origin of the term "chauvinism" takesthe beginning in France of the times of Napoleon Bonaparte. Soldier Nicolas Chauvin de Rochefort, remained a devoted supporter of his emperor until the very end. The name became a household name, it was transformed into a term. Chauvinism in the main sense is an ideological concept, which is basically based on the conviction of the superiority of one nation over another. Aggressive politics, pressure are the methods used by chauvinist supporters to stir up ethnic hatred.
Who are the chauvinists? Unlike nationalism, where "all peoples are equal", chauvinists see their nation endowed with special, exclusive powers, rights. Fascism is one of the terrible manifestations of chauvinism, a crime against all mankind. The result - the death of millions of people of different nationalities, large-scale destruction of cultural and material wealth.
Chauvinism - Psychology
The concept of chauvinism is used by psychologists of differentcurrents. The psychotraumatic experience of upbringing, based on repression, lays the child's future self-assertion in negative ways. The boy can learn the result of the destructive relationship between father and mother (beatings, humiliation) and carry this program further to his future family. What is "male chauvinism" can be clearly seen in the eastern countries, where initially education was built on male superiority over a woman.
Chauvinism and xenophobia - differences
Basically, both phenomena, chauvinism andxenophobia, contain an affective component - negative emotions (hatred, dislike, contempt). Xenophobia - a broader concept - is the fear of a person losing, dissolving their ethnicity. Paranoid fear of xenophobes is extended to all alien: nation, race, culture, religion. Chauvinism is one of the forms of xenophobia that aggressively and violently opposes the interests of its own nation to the detriment of others.
Signs of chauvinism
In modern society, open discriminatorymanifestations are illegal, criminally punishable. Political trends based on chauvinistic tendencies will never lead to mutual understanding, openness, peace among nations, and therefore will not enjoy the support of most people. The consequences are devastating: war, genocide. In individual form, chauvinism is present as a "system of views", mainly for men. Signs of the chauvinist:
- the chauvinist man actively "fights" against chauvinism, accuses others of him, except himself;
- considers himself free from nationalist prejudices;
- exaggerates the "greatness", "otherness" of the "interest" of its people;
- elevates the temperament of his nation;
- believes that all the people "a priori" should love, admire his nation, offended, meeting indifference;
- accurately notes the shortcomings of other ethnic groups, but does not know the real virtues and traits of his people.
Types of chauvinism
If to consider for clarity the concretean example from history, then in Russia XIX - XX centuries. "Great-power chauvinism" - an expression denoting the empire's lordship toward other nations, with the Bolsheviks coming in opposition to nationalism and as a dangerous ideology began to be superseded, but as social-chauvinism exists in the countries of the third world. To date, determining what chauvinism is in other social and social categories, experts distinguish several varieties:
- religious (confessional);
- age chauvinism;
Regardless of the scope of manifestation - chauvinism is basedon suppression and domination of some over others, infringement, inequality of rights. A worldview based on gender discrimination has been called gender or sexual chauvinism. The difference in the natural essence between a man and a woman creates inequality in political, economic and social manifestations - this is the ideology of sexism. Gender roles play a key role in maintaining sexual chauvinism.
Men can experience tender feelings, sympathyin relation to women, but do not consider them equal to themselves, partly because the reason lies in the psychological differences. Male chauvinism - a term (another name - sexism), invented by American feminists. Writer N. Shmelev considered male chauvinism an integral part of a man. Without realizing, a man at any moment can tell an anecdote about a "stupid woman" or "evil mother-in-law".
Characteristic manifestations of male chauvinism:
- the word of men is the law for women;
- the man is the chief in the family;
- mind, logic and mind - the difference between a man and a woman, in whom only the feelings predominate;
- a man is always right;
- for a man - the appearance of a lover is encouraged, for a woman - this is a censure of society
At the end of the XVIII century. women of European countries began to declare their equality with men. The phrase of the American suffragiste Abigail Smith Adams: "We will not obey the laws, in the adoption of which we did not participate, and the authorities that do not represent our interests" went down in history. Feminism is an ideological trend, for several centuries gaining strength and scope. Women managed to achieve equal rights with men during this time:
- occupy leading positions;
- army service;
- choice of any profession;
- free choice of sexual partners.
All this helped women to strengthen themselves in society,to become useful, influential. Female chauvinism is a concept that arose relatively recently. Unlike feminists, recognizing the rights of men and striving for equal rights with them, chauvinists - depreciate the role of men, emphasize their superiority. Men say that women also infringe on their rights, see discrimination as follows:
- early retirement age compared to men;
- lower rates of physical activity;
- the need to take off the headgear in the theater, the church - a woman does not need to do this;
- the decision to terminate the pregnancy - a woman can take on her own.
Chauvinism in the Modern World
To cherish our traditions, way of life, religion, language,music - the normal aspiration of people of any nationality. A high level of moral, spiritual development helps to see the benefits and beauty of the entire diversity of world cultural heritage. Cultural chauvinism propagates its heritage as the only and superior to other cultures - it impoverishes human perception.
Chauvinism in the Bible
What is modern chauvinism? There is no common opinion between sociologists and other specialists. The origins of this phenomenon come from the depths of centuries. Male chauvinism in Christianity is based on the legend of the creation of the world. The first God created Adam, from the rib created for him Eve - in consolation. Exile from Paradise is due to the fault of Eve, who tasted (yielded to the temptation of the serpent) apple - the fruit of knowledge. "All the troubles of a woman!" - this stereotype has not become obsolete in our day.