Type 1 diabetes mellitus arises as a resultFailure of the pancreas. With the indicated endocrine disease, the production of the hormone insulin, which controls the level of glucose, ceases. Insulin is produced when there is a lot of sugar in the blood. In type 1 diabetes, the hormone is not secreted, and the patient's immune system destroys the cells that must produce insulin.
Causes of type 1 diabetes mellitus
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (as it is customarily called inMedical environment, insulin-dependent diabetes), can occur at any age, but usually endocrine disruption is manifested in young people. Although the exact causes of the development of pathology are not known, it is still established that often type 1 diabetes mellitus occurs in individuals whose parents also suffered from this disease or had type 2 diabetes.
Factors provoking the development of endocrine disease are:
- Severe or prolonged stress conditions;
- Infectious diseases;
- Some types of intoxication of the body (it is known that pancreatic cells destroy rat poison);
- Reception of the antibiotic Streptozocin used in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is acute, and, in the absence of treatment, the patient's general condition deteriorates noticeably. The signs of insulin-dependent diabetes are:
- Unreasonable thirst;
- Frequent urination;
- Constant feeling of hunger;
- High fatigue, general weakness;
- Weight change;
- Decreased vision;
- Long unhealed wounds from microtraumas;
- In women - menstruation disorders, in men - erectile dysfunction.
When you pass urine and blood for analysis, they find an increased level of sugar.
Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus
In the absence of therapy, type 1 diabetes mellitus is fraught with serious complications: nerves, kidneys, heart, eyes, etc. are affected. A high level of sugar can cause:
- Diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar coma;
- Diabetic nephropathy (renal failure);
- Diabetic encephalopathy (symptoms of central nervous system intoxication);
- Heart attack, stroke;
The disease can even lead to death.
Patients with type 1 diabetes require insulin therapy to maintain the proper level of sugar and normalize metabolic processes.
Diet for type 1 diabetes mellitus
One of the conditions for maintaining the body's functions isThe relative norm in diabetes is the organization of proper nutrition. There are a number of products, the use of which is prohibited, among them:
- Sweets and pastries;
- Sweet juices, carbonated drinks;
- Fatty meat, fish, cottage cheese, yoghurt;
- Some fruits, incl. Bananas, grapes, raisins, dates;
The patient's diet is determined by the doctor individually, taking into account the state of the patient's body. Daily diabetics should consume:
- Raw, boiled and stewed vegetables;
- Low-fat dairy products, meat, fish;
- Porridge, cooked on water or not whole milk (except semolina);
- vegetable oil;
- Unsweetened fruits;
- green tea;
- In small quantities of bread, preferably bran or rye.
Prevention of diabetes mellitus
Like many diseases, diabetes is easier to prevent, than in consequence to treat throughout life. The system of prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus includes:
- Adherence to a healthy diet;
- Maintaining a physically active lifestyle;
- Fighting stressful conditions;
- Prevention of infectious diseases.
If there are cases of diabetes in blood relatives, you need to monitor the weight and control the sugar level.