The proliferation of tissues and enlargement of the thyroid glandIn the sizes it is rather widespread disease which meets even at absolutely healthy people. Up to a certain stage, it is considered an innocuous cosmetic defect, not a threat. But without timely adequate therapy, thyroid hyperplasia can quickly progress and develop into a serious disease with a risk of developing dangerous complications.Causes and types of pathology
The main factor provoking the describedDisease - inadequate production of hormones. As a result, the compensatory mechanism is activated, in which the thyroid tissue is intensively stimulated, which causes an increase in the organ. The reasons for such processes are:
- Tumor of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland;
- Goiter Hashimoto;
- Iodine deficiency;
- Disorders of the immune and endocrine systems, often - congenital;
- Pregnancy, hormonal failure for various reasons;
- Tumors of the thyroid gland.
There are the following types of hyperplasia:
Also, the disease is classified according to the stage of development, there are five.
Let us consider in more detail.
Diffusive thyroid hyperplasia
This type of disease is aA uniform increase in the size of the body and tissue proliferation. No seals are observed. Often, diffuse hyperplasia is a sign:
- Endemic, diffuse-toxic goiter;
- Inflammatory processes in the thyroid gland;
- Hormonal tumors in internal organs.
Nodular hyperplasia of the thyroid gland
This type of pathology is characterized by the presence of single or multiple neoplasms, which have an excellent structure (more dense) than the tissue of the thyroid gland.
It is worth noting that the nodes sometimes reach very large sizes, most often they indicate the progression of nodular goiter.
Diffusive-nodular hyperplasia of the thyroid gland
Mixed form of the disease combines the symptomsBoth previous varieties. Against the background of a uniform increase in the total volume of the thyroid gland, single or multiple tumors of a nodular character are observed. The growth of the organ and neoplasms may differ.
This type of pathology is subject to the most thorough investigation and constant observation, as it often leads to the development of inoperable malignant tumors.
Moderate hyperplasia of thyroid gland 1 and 2 degrees, zero stage
The described ailment is considered cosmeticDefect and is not dangerous at 0-2 degree of development. The earliest stage of hyperplasia is characterized by a minimal increase in the thyroid gland. The organ is not palpable and visually invisible.
The first stage is accompanied by the allocation of the isthmus of the gland during swallowing, at the same time it is possible to palpate. Externally, the increase is not detectable.
For hyperplasia of the second degree, visually noticeable body growth is characteristic, the thyroid gland is easily palpable on examination.
These stages do not have any additional subjective symptoms, if there is no hypo-, hyperfunction of the thyroid gland, or its damage in the anamnesis.
The main methods of treatment of the disease are:
- Monitoring (regular observation);
- Hormonal replacement treatment (selected individually);
- Correction of the diet with the addition of iodine-containing products.
Treatment of hyperplasia of thyroid gland 3-5 degrees
The stages of the disease under consideration are accompanied byA strong increase in the body (goiter), a change in the shape of the neck. The latter degree is characterized by difficulty in the respiratory process and swallowing. In addition, there are sharp jumps in weight, swelling, and nervous disorders.
With a strong squeezing of the surrounding thyroidOrgans and tissues is assigned a surgical operation designed to excise the nodes, if any, and reduce the size of the gland. In the future, supportive hormone therapy is required.