The thyroid gland is the most important organ, fromThe functioning and functioning of all systems of the human body depends on its functioning. It is this gland that produces special biologically active substances - hormones that affect the growth of body cells and regulate metabolic processes. Pathologies of the thyroid gland entail a variety of disruptions in the vital activity of the whole organism.
Hypoplasia (hypoplasia) of the thyroid glandIs a congenital disease that manifests itself immediately after birth. This pathology begins its development in the prenatal period and can be associated with an insufficient content of iodine in the body of a pregnant woman, as well as the thyroid gland present in her. In this case, the underdevelopment of the entire organ tissue is more often noted, although hypoplasia of a part of the thyroid gland (for example, the left lobe) is sometimes encountered.
If such deviations carry the acquired(Secondary) character, i.e. Diagnosed in adults, they are called atrophy of the thyroid gland. However, the term "hypoplasia" is often used to describe such a disease. The mechanism of gland atrophy is associated with a gradual decrease in the volume of its functional tissue due to the death of thyrocytes - glandular thyroid cells that produce hormones. As a result of a lack of hormones, a condition called hypothyroidism develops.
Causes of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in adults
Let us highlight the most common causes of thyroid atrophy:
- Diseases of the pituitary gland, in which the hormone TSH, which affects the activity of the thyroid gland, is not produced;
- Inflammation of the thyroid tissue of autoimmune genesis;
- Long-term use of thyreostatic drugs that inhibit the synthesis of thyroid hormones;
- Treatment with radioactive iodine, an overabundance of iodine in the body;
- Deterioration of the blood supply to the gland tissue;
- Malignant tumors of the thyroid gland.
Symptoms of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland
Pathology develops gradually, so signs of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland do not appear immediately. Manifestations of hypoplasia can be:
- Weakness, fatigue;
- Memory impairment;
- Decreased sexual desire;
- Dry skin;
- Brittle nails, hair loss;
- Decreased body temperature;
- Lack of appetite against the background of increasing weight;
- Muscle tremor;
- Abundant and prolonged menstrual flow.
In the advanced stage, a characteristic symptomIs the edema of the subcutaneous fat, accompanied by pericardial and pleural effusions. There is a strong puffiness of the face, puffiness of the eyelids, bags under the eyes, lack of facial expression.
Echopriznaki hypoplasia of the thyroid gland
Determine the exact size of the thyroid gland, theMost confirm the diagnosis of hypoplasia, can only be done with ultrasound. Measurement of the size of the organ is made and comparison of the obtained parameters with the age norms. The main indicator is
Treatment of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland
Therapy for hypoplasia of the thyroid gland depends onDegree of pathology (moderate, severe, etc.), the number of irreversible changes and, of course, the reasons for its development. Recovery of the gland cells is impossible, therefore, it is generally recommended to take medications to eliminate or alleviate the symptoms of the disease. There is also a need for a constant intake of hormonal drugs (substitution therapy). In rare cases, surgical intervention is prescribed.